Karl Landsteiner a Nobel the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine – Landsteiner full named Karl Landsteiner discovered which particular blood type in 1901. He showed a blood transfusion between classes. The classification of blood-based on the presence or antigen substance appeared on the surface membrane of the heritage of the red blood cells caused by the different types of carbohydrates and proteins.
Its blood is most important in the world of Physiology and Medicine are the classifications of ABO (AB and O) and rhesus (Rh factor). In this world, it is known about 46 kinds of antigens, other than ABO and Rh antigens; it’s just rarer.
Transfusion blood from the incompatible transfusion reactions can lead to immunological cause anemia hemonilisi, renal failure, shock, and death.
Karl Landsteiner found three of the four, later called blood type ABO, by the way, check the blood type a few friends it works. A simple experiment that he did by reacting red blood cells with serum from the donor.
In the analysis, he found two kinds of reactions that later became the base of the antigens A and B for blood type A and B, as well as a range of opinion without blood type o. Conclusion any leads on one postulate, namely A and B antigens on red blood cells called the A and B or no reaction called the O.
Blood type AB was discovered by his research colleagues Alfred Von Decastello and Andriano Sturli, wherein the blood type AB, both the A and B antigens found simultaneously on red blood cells, while at the same time not serum on red blood cells, whereas in the serum is not found antibodies.
A man with blood type A has red blood cells with antigen A in the surface membrane of the cell and produce antibodies against the B antigen in serum in his veins. So, people with blood type A-negative can only accept blood from people with blood type A-negative or O-negative.
Meanwhile, people with blood type B have B antigen on the surface of red blood cells and produces antibodies against the antigen A in serum blood. People with blood type B-negative can only accept blood from people with blood type B or O-negative-negative.
Meanwhile, individuals with blood type AB have red blood cells with antigen A and B, as well as do not produce antibodies against antigens A or b. A person with blood type AB-positive can receive blood from a person with any ABO blood type, and he called universal recipients as well. People with blood type AB positive could not donate their blood except to fellow AB-positive.
As for people with blood type O have the blood cells without antigen, but producing antibodies against A and B antigens. People with blood type O-negative can donate their blood to a person with blood type ABO anything, and he called the universal donor. However, people with blood type O-negative blood can only receive from fellow O-negative.
Karl Landsteiner obtained the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930 for services discover how blood ABO categorization.