Islamic kingdom in Indonesia – The influence of Islam and its culture had penetrated into all aspects of people’s life, such as politics, government, culture and social life. The political effect of Islam on government policy in Indonesia was evident from the existence of Islamic kingdoms.
The foundation of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia indicated that Islam had a firm position in the society which had been under the influence of Hinduism-Buddhism. The existence of Islamic kingdoms had also eased the spread of Islam in Indonesia.
The change of government style from Hindu-Buddhist to Islamic style was not only due to the factor of Muslim merchants and their knowledge but also relation with several centers of world trade. Another factor was the status of a king as a prime being in Hinduism-Buddhism that was still maintained in Islam, but the term was changed to Khalifatullah fil Ardhi or Allah’s representative on the earth.
Islamic kindoms in Indonesia existed from the 13th century until the Europeans took over the control of the region in the beginning of 20th century. The Islamic kingdoms which was influenced by Gujarati, Arabic, and Persian cultures also developed their traditions besides maintaining the existing Hindu-Buddhist and native traditions.
Some inheritances of the Islamic kingdoms still exist today and some are even used as sources of inspiration in making other things. Products of Islamic culture have also enriched Indonesian culture. Some historical inheritances of Islam in Indonesia are products of architecture, carvings, sculpturing, leterature, caligraphy, and some traditions and ceremonies.
- Azan is : a call for Muslims to do prayers.
- Adipati is : a position in monarchies in Java which is equal to today’s regent.
- Chronicle (Babad) is : historical account which is more like a stroy than history.
- Fatahilah is : a title meaning “Victory in Allah’s Way” which was awarded by Sultan Trenggan to Nurullah.
- Figh is : Islamic laws that govern the life of Muslims.
- Hikayat is : a tale written for entertainment or encouragement.
- Islamic imperium is : vast area under the control of Islam.
- Caligraphy is : artistic handwriting, especially in Arabic scripts.
- Sultanate is : a term originating from the Middle East which means kingdom.
- Muezzin is : man who calls Muslims to prayer (azan).
- Tombstone is : short post planted as a grave mark.
- Sultan is : a term equal to king originating from the Middle East.
- Suluk is : a book that compares subjects on Islamic mysticism.
- Tengku is : class of people in Aceh society that plays an important role in religious affairs.
- Teuku is : aristocratic class, class of people in Aceh society that plays an important role in civil government.