History – In he 14th century, a governor of Siam settled in Singapore (Tumasik). At tha time, there was chaos in Java as the effect of Paregrek war, a civil was in Majapahit between West Majapahit which was led by Wikrama Wardhana and East Majapahit which was led by Wirabhumi.
One of the princes of Majapahit ran away to Siam and was welcomed by the governor of Siam. The name of the princes was Parameswara or Paramisora. From Siam, Prince Parameswara continued his journey to Malacca and there he built the town of Malacca.
Read more about the kingdom of Majapahit in the following article:
- Majapahit Kingdom in history
- Religion life in Majapahit Kingdom and culture
- The fall of Majapahit Kingdom
The fact that Samudera Pasai Kingdom was declining was an advantage to the development of Malacca. Gradually, Malacca developed into a busy and well-known town of trade. Finally, Malacca became a kingdom in the 14th century.
The development of Malacca was not only supported by the decline of Samudera Pasai Kingdom but also Majapahit which was even close to a collapse, so the two kingdoms were nt significant competitors of Malacca Kingdom.
This kingdom reached its golden period during the reign of Sultan Mansyur Syah who was in power from 1458 to 1477. Its territory included Malay Peninsula (Please read: The birth of Islam in Arabian Peninsula), Central Sumatra and the areas nearby. It was in this period that Hang Tuah lived, he was great admiral that supported the glory of Malacca.
Sultan Mansyur Syah was succeeded by Sultan Alaudin Syah, who ruled the kingdom from 1477 to 1488. He was then succeeded by his son, Sultan Mahmud Syah. During his reign, Malacca was visited by Portuguese tradesmen.
The Portuguese people were the ones that caused the destruction of Malacca in 1511 they attacked Malacca and took over the control of the region in order to monopolize trade.
The monopolization of trade by the Portuguese other tradesmen, expecially Muslim tradesmen, turn to other ports including Aceh port. This made Aceh Kingdom develop fast.
According to some historical records, Aceh, Kingdom was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah (1514-1528), and the center of government was located in Kotaraja which is called Banda Aceh today.
The golden period of Aceh arrived during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda (1607-1636) in which the port of Aceh became an international trade port.
With the support of a strong army and armada, Sultan Iskandar Muda expanded his territory until it covered half of Sumatra, or as far as Bengkulu on the west coast and Kampar on the east coast.
Besides that, Aceh also managed to conquer Johor Kingdom after launching two attacks in 1613 and 1615.
During the period of government of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Aceh also established economic, political and cultural relations with countries of Europe, the Middle East, India, Africa, and America.
Then in early 16th century, when the western imperialists took control of most Islamic countries, Aceh managed to cooperate with several Muslim countries in various sectors including economy, politics, culture and military. The Muslim countries that Aceh cooperated with were as follows :
- Islamic kindom of Akara in India.
- Islamic kingdom of Isfahan in the Middle East.
- Kingdom of Ottoman Turkey.
- Islamic kingdom of Morocco in North Africa.
The five Islamic kingdoms (Aceh, Akra, Isfahan, Ottoman Turkey, and Morocco) were powerful Muslim countries that cooperated to resist the Western imperialistic forces which were well-known for their ‘Reconquesta’ spirit.
After the death of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Aceh was ruled by his son-in-law, Sultan Iskandar Tani, who was in power from 1637 to 1642. Aceh kept flourishing under this new sultan.
Following the death of Sultan Iskandar Tani (1642), Aceh Kingdom started to decline and finally collapsed. Below are some factors which supported the decline of Aceh.
- The dispute between the aristocratic group (Teuku) and ulama group (Tengku).
- The long war with the Dutch which finally was won by the Dutch in 1904