Augustus, twenty three Sept sixty three B.C. – nineteen August fourteen AD) was the founding father of the Roman Principate and thought of the primary Emperor of Rome, dominant the empire from twenty seven B.C. till his death in AD fourteen. He was born Gaius Caesar Octavius into associate recent and flush equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia.
His maternal granduncle Caesar was dead in forty four B.C., and Octavius was named in Caesar’s can as his adopted son and heir, then referred to as Octavianus (Anglicized as Octavian). He, Marcus Antonius, and Marcus Lepidus fashioned the Second threesome to defeat the assassins of Caesar.
Following their ending at the Battle of Philippi, the threesome divided the republic among themselves and dominated as military dictators. The threesome was eventually torn apart by the competitory ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Mark Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Emperor of Rome in thirty one B.C..
After the dying of the Second threesome, solon restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power unconditional within the Roman Senate, the manager magistrates, and therefore the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he maintained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator.
By law, solon command a set of powers granted to him forever by the Senate, together with supreme military command, and people of apse and censor. It took many years for solon to develop the framework at intervals that a formally republican state may be semiconductor diode beneath his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead known as himself Princeps Civitatis (“First national of the State”). The ensuing constitutional framework became referred to as the Principate, the primary section of the empire.
The reign of solon initiated associate era of relative peace referred to as the peace (The Roman Peace). The Roman world was for the most part free from large-scale conflict for quite 2 centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial growth on the Empire’s frontiers and therefore the year-long warfare referred to as the “Year of the Four Emperors” over the imperial succession.
Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia; increasing possessions in Africa; increasing into Germania; and finishing the conquest of Hispania. on the far side the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of shopper states and created peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy.
He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an officer messenger system, established a ground forces, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and restored a lot of of town throughout his reign.
Augustus died in AD fourteen at the age of seventy five. He in all probability died from natural causes, though there have been unconfirmed rumors that his mate Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepchild and former son-in-law) Tiberius.
1st Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign: 16 January 27 BC – 19 August AD 14 (40 years)
Predecessor: Julius Caesar (as dictator), great-uncle, adoptive father
Born: Gaius Octavius, 23 September 63 BC Rome, Roman Republic
Died: 19 August AD 14 (aged 75), Nola, Italia, Roman Empire
Burial: Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome
Spouse: Clodia Pulchra (42–40 BC; divorce) Scribonia (40–38 BC; divorce) Livia Drusilla (37 BC–AD 14; his death)
Issue: Julia the Elder
Full name: Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus
House: Julio-Claudian dynasty
Father: Gaius Octavius, Julius Caesar (adoptive)
Mother: Atia Balba Caesonia
Religion: Traditional ancient Roman religion